MIS cameras are quite small, as they have to fit on the end of long, thin arms (like all other MIS instruments). Using the traditional monocular camera and 2D display causes not only a loss of luminance and chrominance, but more importantly loss of depth perception. Most studies involving 3D displays in a surgical setting have proved ineffective and have no definitively improved performance or comfort. Many have even resulted in headaches, nausea, and eyestrain. This is due in part from what has been used to produce 3D images: polarized or shuttered glasses, VR goggles, displays with very poor viewing angles, etc.